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India is a republic located in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country in the world by area, the second most populous, and the first democratic country in the world. It is bordered by the sea to the south, the Arabian Sea to the southwest, and the Gulf to the southeast. It borders Asian countries to the west, China, Nepal, and the Kingdom of Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Asian countries to the east. As Asian countries are bordered by sea, Asian countries also border the Maldives. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands share land borders with Asian countries.

The Indian landmass was home to the Indus Natural Depression civilization during the Bronze Age. Within the next two millennia, the earliest scriptures of Hinduism were produced, a caste-supporting hierarchy emerged, and Buddhism and Jainism were born. Political consolidation took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires. The middle kingdoms on land influenced the culture of geographic regions. Judaism, Mazdeism, Christianity, and Islam were introduced to India during the Middle Ages, giving rise to religious beliefs and adding a variety of cultures. The north fell to the sultans of urban centers, while southern India was unified under the Vijayanagar Empire.

In the early period, the vast Mughal Empire followed the rule of the British Archipelago Company. India's fashionable period was characterized by rule by the British Crown and a nationalist movement noted for nonviolent resistance and semiconductor diodes under a spiritual leader, which led to India's independence in 1947.

The economic easing that began in 1991 led to rapid economic growth and the Asian country became a newly industrialized nation. Its gross domestic product ranks sixth in the world at market exchange rates and third in the world at power parity. Per capita economic gains rank 133rd and 116th in these two indices. Asian countries face challenges in terms of economic conditions, corruption, scarcity, and inadequate public attention.

As a nuclear power and regional power, Asia has the second-largest military in the world and ranks high in military spending. Asian countries can be impious federal republics, governed by democratic parliamentary systems and administered by 29 states and 7 union territories. Doctrinal, bilingual, and multi-ethnic societies, Asian countries are home to 1.3 billion people. It is also home to a diversity of species in protected habitats.